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Foot and Anckle:

Foot problems

Assessment allows us to offer an appropriate treatment for foot disorders

These types of problems are represented in different ways: in toes, nerves, tendons, ligaments and joints. Each of these parts may suffer diseases such as: flat feet, corns and calluses, abscesses, etc.

Assessment by a specialist to obtain an accurate diagnosis, to provide an appropriate treatment and to provide prevention hints for foot care. A prompt and effective treatment often reduces the need for surgical treatment.

The most common foot ailments are:

  • Corns. They are thickenings of the skin which are formed due to constant pressure on the skin or by the friction of a shoe. It is important to avoid using insoles not prescribed by a physician, as this can further irritate the corn or may lead to an infection.

  • Hallux Valgus or Bunions. They are lumps on the side of the big toe, which may cause important changes in toes alignment. They are progressive, and painful.

  

Symptoms are:  big toe deformity, the presence of calluses, problems when wearing footwear, swelling and limited mobility of the big toe.

Diagnosis is made through a proper physical examination and radiology studies, and then indicate the suitable treatment for each foot.

  • Hallux Rigidus. This is a big toe condition. Its movement is limited, causing pain and loss of strength. In advanced cases, it may limit walking.

The symptoms are pain and stiffness of the big toe when walking, standing, or bending. The pain gets worse with cold or moisture, there is an increased volume of the big toe and it becomes difficult to find comfortable footwear. In severe cases, limp may occur.

The diagnosis is clinical and is confirmed through radiology studies, and then determine a suitable treatment. In some cases, this condition can be resolved with percutaneous foot surgery, allowing the patient a prompt return to daily activities and minimal postoperative pain.

  • Crossover Toe: A condition in which one of the toes moves over a neighboring finger. It is frequently seen on the second toe, which moves toward the big toe. This disease occurs at any age but occurs most frequently in adults. Its cause is a combination of the anatomy of the foot itself coupled to an imbalance of the ligaments. 

 

Usually these problems are slowly progressive and become painful after several years, besides it is accompanied by swelling and difficulty to find comfortable footwear.

  • Hammer toe: It is a condition in which the end of the toe is bent downward. This deformity is due to the anatomy of the foot, when one or more toes are larger than the big toe; tendon imbalance, previous trauma or family inherited.

Common symptoms of hammer toes include: pain or irritation of the toes affected by the use of footwear, whether in the region of the fingernail or on the flexed phalanx.

  • Claw toes. In this condition, toes are permanently bent in the middle and distal joint of the finger. The resulting deformity can be aggravated by narrow shoes, causing pain in those areas, above and at the end of the toes.

In this treatment, it is recommended to wear wide and comfortable footwear and make elasticity exercises in the toes to limit their deformity and pain. If pain continues, the patient must undergo surgery.

  • Bunionette or Tailor’s bunion: It is a prominence of the fifth toe and this toe is moved over the fourth toe. Family inherited, this problem is painful and it is a painful bunion on the outside of the foot. Treatment ranges from recommendation to wear wide footwear up to ungergoing percutaneous surgery.

  • Posterior tibial tendon injury or Fallen Arch. This condition occurs when the main tendon of the arch support is weakened or injured, causing the arch to be gradually flattened.

Main symptoms are pain and difficulty to wear footwear and the most common problems associated with this disease are: plantar fasciitis, tendinitis, increased fatigue, foot and ankle arthritis.

  • Plantar fasciitis or arch pain. It is the pain in the bottom of the foot between, the heel and the bones of the ball of the foot. Most cases are due to tension or inflammation of the plantar fascia ligament, located on the bottom of the foot.

Arch pain develops due to excessive use, wearing shoes without support, weight gain or an acute injury. 95% of patients satisfactorily respond to well structured medical treatment.

  • Flat foot: A foot condition that develops in childhood or adolescence and has varying degrees of deformity.

The pain in this type of condition occurs once the patient is finished growing up. Every child older than 2 years should be assessed by a medical specialist to determine whether there is flat foot or not and be able to start an early medical treatment.

If a person has pain in the heel or foot arch for standing a long time or walking, or pain in the front part of the leg, it is said to have flat feet. Treatment depends on the level of deformity, ranging from rehab exercises at home and using insoles, to surgical treatments.

  • Incarnated toenail. Occurs when the edges of the big toe nail grow abnormally "digging or burying" in the surrounding skin, resulting in inflammation or infection. Definitive treatment should be indicated by your physician, because a lot of times, the anti-inflammatory and antibiotic treatment can permanently alleviate the problem.

  • Bursitis. These bursal sacs are designed to facilitate the sliding of the muscles and tendons on bones. In some cases, especially in some ailments, these bursal sacs can swell, become red and painful for the patient.

  • Foot Pain. Its causes are many, from fractures and sprains, muscle and tendon imbalances, to nerve damage. An adequate physical examination and some basic imaging studies carried out by a specialist, help us indicate a suitable treatment to relieve pain.

  • Metatarsalgia. It is a painful problem located in the ball of the foot or part of the sole just behind the toes. Although its causes may be diverse, the main ones are: transverse flat foot and disorder in support of the foot. It is a progressive problem that ranges from occasional pain in the sole of the foot, to limit the daily activities of the person who suffers it.